Realmd and SSSD Active Directory Authentication

Introduction to SSSD and Realmd

Starting from Red Hat 7 and CentOS 7, SSSD or ‘System Security Services Daemon’  and realmd have been introduced. SSSD’s main function is to access a remote identity and authentication resource through a common framework that provides caching and offline support to the system. SSSD provides PAM and NSS integration and a database to store local users, as well as core and extended user data retrieved from a central server. 

The main reason to transition from Winbind to SSSD is that SSSD can be used for both direct and indirect integration and allows to switch from one integration approach to another without significant migration costs. The most convenient way to configure SSSD or Winbind in order to directly integrate a Linux system with AD is to use the realmd service. Because it allows callers to configure network authentication and domain membership in a standard way. The realmd service automatically discovers information about accessible domains and realms and does not require advanced configuration to join a domain or realm.

The realmd system provides a clear and simple way to discover and join identity domains. It does not connect to the domain itself but configures underlying Linux system services, such as SSSD or Winbind, to connect to the domain.

Realmd Pam SSSD

Please read through this Windows integration guide from Red Hat if you want more information. This extensive guide contains a lot of useful information about more complex situations.

Realmd / SSSD Use Cases

How to join an Active Directory domain?

  1. First of all start you will need to install the required packages:
  2. Configure ntp to prevent time sync issues:
  3. Join the server to the domain:
  4. Also add the default domain suffix to the sssd configuration file:

    Add the following beneath [sssd]

  5. Finally move the computer object to an organizational unit in Active Directory.

How to leave an Active Directory domain?

I saw multiple times that although the computer object was created in Active Directory it was still not possible to login with an ad account. The solution was each time to remove the server from the domain and then just add it back.

How to permit only one Active Directory group to logon

As it can be very useful to only allow one Active Directory group. For example a group with Linux system administrators.

 How to give sudo permissions to an Active Directory group

Add

Or

Example sssd.conf Configuration

The following is an example sshd.conf configuration file. I’ve seen it happen once that somehow access_provider was set to ad. I haven’t got the chance to play with that setting, as simple worked almost every time for now.

Required security permissions in AD

A few months ago, we had a problem where some users were no longer able to authenticate. After an extended search we discovered the reason was a hardening change in permissions on some ou’s in our AD. My colleague Jenne and I discovered that the Linux server computer objects need minimal permissions on the ou which contains the users that want to authenticate on your Linux servers. After testing almost all obvious permissions, we came to the conclusions that the computer objects need “Read remote access information”!

sssd-permissions-ras

How to debug SSSD and realmd?

The logfile which contains information about successful or failed login attempts is /var/log/secure. It contains information related to authentication and authorization privileges. For example, sshd logs all the messages there, including unsuccessful login. Be sure to check that logfile if you experience problems logging in with an Active Directory user. 

How to clear the SSSD cache?

As suggested by AP in the comments, you can manage your cache with the sss_cache command.  It can be used to clear the cache and update all records:

The sss_cache command can also clear all cached entries for a particular domain:
If the administrator knows that a specific record (user, group, or netgroup) has been updated, then sss_cachecan purge the records for that specific account and leave the rest of the cache intact:

Please refer to the official documentation for more information.

In case the above doesn’t help, you can also remove the cache ‘hte hard way’:

Just wanted to add this command which also helped me in one case somehow. 

Final Words

I hope this guide helps people towards a better Windows Linux integration. Let me know if you think there is a better way to do the above or if you have some useful information you think I should add to this guide.

Greetings.

Willem

Monitor RaspBerry Pi with Nagios

Introduction

Over the past week, I had multiple questions how to monitor RaspBerry Pi with Nagios. Monitoring is crucial to pro-actively  find out any issues that might come up. There are multiple ways to achieve this. I’ll try to build up this ‘how to’ from the ground, starting with using the standard traditional method, which is using the official Nagios NRPE Agent.

NSClient++ does not yet support Raspbian for now. Michael Medin told me in this forum thread that he is planning to port it once he finds some spare time.

It’s also possible to install Go and Telegraf on your Raspbian, but I haven’t got the time to test that. 

How to Monitor RaspBerry Pi with NRPE Agent?

The code below worked fine for me on Raspbian Jessie

Create nrpe.cfg in /usr/local/nagios/etc

The relevant part of my nrpe.cfg looks like this:

make sure to replace <ip-of-your-Nagios-server-here> with (you never guess) the ip of your Nagios server.

Let me know if you experience any issues.

Grtz

Willem

Monitoring Linux Processes

Introduction

As I had some issues with my Linode server related to mistuned MariaDB settings, I was forced to find a way to monitor a Linux process, such as httpd, mysqld and php. Not only did I need to know if they were running, how many of them were running, but also their cpu and memory usage, so I could tune my Apache settings (located at /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf). I hoped to find a plugin which did all of the above, but couldn’t find one. The plugin that came closest to what I needed, was this one written bij Eli Keimig. 

As the last release date was 08/11/2010 and it missed some crucial features, I decided to make it better. At the moment I added the following features:

  • Performance data for Linux process CPU usage.
  • Performance data for Linux process Memory usage.
  • Added Linux process count with performance data.
  • Improved the plugin output.
  • Added minimum and maximum Linux process count.

How to monitor a Linux process?

The plugin uses ‘ps’ to retrieve the Linux process information. Logged in as root, type the following in your terminal to show active processes on the server:

The a option tells ps to list the processes of all users on the system rather than just those of the current user, with the exception of group leaders and processes not associated with a terminal. A group leader is the first member of a group of related processes.

The u option tells ps to provide detailed information about each process.

The x option adds to the list processes that have no controlling terminal, such as daemons, which are programs that are launched during boot and run unobtrusively in the background until they are activated by a particular event or condition.

As the list of processes can be quite long and occupy more than a single screen, the output of ps aux can be piped (transferred) to the less command, which lets it be viewed one screen full at a time. The output can be advanced one screen forward by pressing the SPACE bar and one screen backward by pressing the b key.

With the -C parameter you can specify the Linux process for which to show information.

And you can specify what specific information to show with the -o parameter:

After joining the results with paste and making the sum with bc, we get the result we want.

Check out this screenshot which shows information about the httpd, mysqld, nagios and php processes.

Linux process

This information can really help troubleshoot LAMP configuration issues. I haven’t got a lot of time to produce a decent post, but I’ll extend this post when I find some more time. As it’s a Bash script I’m guessing it doesn’t need to much explanation to get it working in Nagios.